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the human body

ligamentous apparatus


Respiratory system

. Nervous system.


Endocrine system

. immune system

. Lymphatic system


Urinary tract.

skeletal system

Reproductive system Human body systems The human body consists of many parts and organs that make up the various vital body systems that are surrounded by the lining system that protects them from the external environment, and in the following we will review the parts that make up the various body systems.

[1] The integumentary system consists of skin, hair, and nails, and constitutes 15% of the weight of the human body. The skin provides an insulating and waterproof layer that protects the body from pathogens such as bacteria and viruses, and from the harmful effect of ultraviolet rays. The skin consists of three layers: the epidermis, which is the outer layer, the dermis, which is the middle layer that gives the skin flexibility, and subcutaneous tissue, which is the deepest layer of the skin, Other functions of the integumentary system include regulating body temperature, removing waste, and storing water, fat, glucose, and vitamin D.

[2] Digestive system :

The digestive system is the system specialized in digesting food and converting it into simple substances that the body can absorb and extract energy from. The digestive system consists of the alimentary canal and its attached organs that secrete enzymes and substances that help in the process of digestion, namely the liver and pancreas, and the alimentary canal is a long muscular tube consisting of two main sections :

[3] The upper alimentary canal: It consists of: Mouth: It contains teeth, tongue and salivary glands. Pharynx: connects between the mouth and the esophagus. Esophagus: A tube with a length of 10-14 inches in an adult human, through which food moves thanks to the undulating movement of the muscles of its inner wall.

Stomach: a muscular sac that can hold 2-3 liters of food in an adult human.

The lower alimentary canal: It consists of: The small intestine: It consists of three parts, the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. Large intestine: It consists of three parts: the cecum, the colon, and the rectum. The anus: The part through which the body gets rid of the waste products of the digestive process.

Respiratory system The respiratory system is the device specialized in supplying the body with its need of oxygen and getting rid of carbon dioxide. It consists of the following parts:[4]

the nose. Pharynx: It has three parts: nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngeal pharynx.

throat. Trachea. Right and left airway. The lung with the alveoli.

Nervous system The nervous system is the system concerned with receiving and responding to internal and external stimuli, and coordinating the activities of the various organs of the body. The nervous system consists of two main parts: [5] The central nervous system:

It consists of the brain and spinal cord. Peripheral nervous system or peripheral nervous system: It consists of all parts of the nervous system that are located outside the brain and spinal cord,

The peripheral nervous system is divided into two parts:

Somatic nervous system:

. Autonomic nervous system:.

The circulatory system is the system responsible for transporting food, hormones, oxygen, and carbon dioxide within the human body,

It consists of: [6] Blood: Blood consists of plasma, white and red blood cells, and platelets.

Arteries: the blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the various parts of the body, and from the main arteries in the body: the aorta or the aorta: it transports oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the various parts of the body. Pulmonary artery: Carries oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs. veins:

The blood vessels that carry blood from different parts of the body to the heart, and from the main veins in the human body: the superior and inferior vena cava: they carry oxygen-poor blood from different parts of the body to the heart. Pulmonary vein: carries oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the heart.

endocrine system :

The endocrine system is a group of glands that secrete hormones that regulate most of the vital functions of the body, such as: growth, reproduction, sleep, metabolism and other bodily functions, and it consists of:

Pineal gland: a gland located in the brain cavity, which secretes the hormone melatonin, which regulates the circadian rhythm of the body. Hypothalamus: Part of the brain made up of nerve cells that control the body's balance, the centers of hunger and thirst, and secrete hormones that in turn regulate the secretion of pituitary gland hormones, such as hormones that encourage or inhibit the secretion of prolactin, and hormones that stimulate or inhibit the secretion of growth hormone. The pituitary gland: a gland located in the brain, and it consists of an anterior lobe and a posterior lobe, and the anterior lobe hormones are prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, and both follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone in females, while the posterior lobe secretes the antidiuretic hormone, The female hormone oxytocin.

Thyroid: A gland located in the human neck that secretes three hormones: calcitonin, thyroxine, and triiodothyronine. Parathyroid glands: Four small glands located in the back of the thyroid gland, and secrete a single hormone called parathyroid hormone, and its function is to increase the concentration of calcium in the blood. Pancreas: The pancreas secretes the hormone insulin, which lowers the concentration of glucose in the blood. Adrenal gland: The adrenal gland consists of the cortex and the medulla, and the cortex secretes the hormone cortisol, which causes a high level of glucose in the blood and a decrease in the body's immune activity, and aldosterone, which maintains the balance of sodium and potassium in the body, and the medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland and secretes the hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline. Testes: Two glands located outside the male body, and they are active after puberty, and they secrete androgen hormones that have a role in the production of sperm and the development of secondary sexual characteristics. Ovary: A female gland that secretes both estrogen and progesterone, which affect the production of eggs and the development of secondary sexual characteristics.

The immune system The immune system :

It is the organ responsible for protecting the body from pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and others.

It consists of the following parts:

Lymph glands: They are kidney-shaped glands whose function is to produce and store cells that help protect the body from disease, and contain lymph that helps transport these cells inside the body.

Spleen: An organ located above the stomach on the left side of the body that contains white blood cells, and helps get rid of damaged blood cells.

Bone marrow: yellow tissue found inside some bones, such as the thigh and hip bones, and its function is to produce white blood cells.

and stem cells. Lymphocytes: They are of two types, B lymphocytes that make antibodies that attack bacteria and toxins, and T lymphocytes, which are two types, T-lymphocytes that kill cells infected with viruses and pathogens, and T-helper cells that help determine the type of immune response that the body makes to a particular disease-causing agent.


A small gland located below the breastbone in which T-lymphocytes mature, and its function is to stimulate the production of antibodies.

White blood cells: Immune cells that recognize and fight pathogens, including appendages, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, and macrophages.

Lymphatic system :

The lymphatic system is a network of tubes and ducts that collect and return lymph to the bloodstream, and lymph is a transparent fluid that forms the interstitial fluid that surrounds cells and consists of water, protein, salts, fats, white blood cells, and other substances that must be returned to the blood to maintain blood pressure and volume The lymphatic system is part of the immune system, so it helps to develop immune cells, especially lymphocytes, and purifies the blood from pathogens, and the lymphatic system consists of lymphatic vessels that transport lymph fluid, including lymphatic capillaries, Lymph that merges to form two lymphatic channels that return lymph to the blood circulation through the subclavian veins in the neck. The other components are the components of the immune system that we mentioned above: the lymph nodes, the thymus gland, the spleen, the tonsils, and the bone marrow.

[9] Muscular system : The human muscular system contains 650 muscles that perform various functions. Thanks to these muscles, a person is able to walk, sit, move his limbs, eat, breathe, circulate blood in the body, move the eyes and other voluntary and involuntary activities. Muscles are divided into three types: [10] Skeletal muscles: muscles attached to the bones, and enable the body to perform voluntary movements. Smooth muscles, or visceral muscles: are the muscles that make up the internal organs in the body, such as: the stomach and intestines. Cardiac muscles: They are the muscles that make up the heart, and they have a role in pumping blood to and from the heart.

Urinary system :

The urinary system is the system responsible for the formation, storage, and excretion of urine and it consists of the following parts: [11] The kidney: a bean-shaped organ located in the middle of the back below the rib cage, and it consists of nephrons that filter blood from waste products and form urine. Ureters: Two tubes connected to the kidneys, each ranging from 20 to 25 cm in length, and urine passes through them to reach the urinary bladder. Urinary bladder: a hollow, balloon-shaped bag located in the pelvis and at the end of it circular muscles that control the opening and closing of the bladder, and the bladder can store approximately half a liter of urine before it becomes necessary to empty it. Urethra: It is a passage through which urine passes on its way out of the body.

skeletal system :

The human skeletal system consists of teeth, bones, tendons, ligaments and cartilage. The number of human bones is 206 bones. The skeletal system is divided into two main parts: [12] The axial skeleton: It consists of 80 bones that form the skull, spine, and rib cage. The peripheral skeleton: It consists of 126 bones that make up the thoracic girdle, the pelvic girdle, the upper extremities, and the lower extremities.

The male and female reproductive system consists of a group of internal and external organs that work together so that a person can reproduce and produce new individuals, and the male reproductive system consists of the penis and testicles, where sperm are produced, and the testicles are located inside a bag outside the body, called the sac. As for the female reproductive system, it consists of external and internal organs, which are: the vagina, the uterus, the ovaries, and the fallopian tubes .

Now we come to the diseases according to each device:

cortical apparatus:

Skin diseases:

h b youth :

Regardless of the name, it is a constant daily inconvenience. Acne is slowly healed, as it begins to disappear until another appears Acne

This constant and endless battle is repeated over and over in a tired and hopeless manner, and it is likely that hormones play a major role in the emergence of acne

The reason for its appearance: .

Each bulb is connected to a milky gland. This gland secretes an oily substance called sebum, which lubricates the skin and reaches the surface of the skin.)

. When the body secretes an excess amount of milky juice and dead skin cells, all of these may collect in the hair follicles to form a soft blockage.

This blockage may cause swelling in the wall of the hair follicle, which leads to the formation of a white head. The blockage may make its way outside the surface of the skin, becoming black and forming a black head.

Pimples : are red spots protruding from the surface of the skin, and white in the center, formed as a result of contamination of the aforementioned blockage in the hair ducts, then inflammation and turn into cysts . Excessive rubbing of the skin or cleaning it with lotions, lotions and chemicals may make the pimples worse due to irritation and alerting the skin greatly .

It is a common skin disease that affects the life cycle of skin cells.

As a result of psoriasis, cells build up on the surface of the skin quickly to form thick silvery scales and itchy layers, which are dry and red, sometimes causing pain..

Psoriasis is a stubborn disease that lasts for a long time (chronic disease). There are periods when psoriasis symptoms improve and ease, while psoriasis is severe in other periods..

For some patients,

Psoriasis is nothing more than a nuisance. It may cause disability, especially if it is associated with arthritis

There is no cure for psoriasis, but treating psoriasis can make a significant improvement. Also, adopting lifestyle measures,

skin cancer :

Skin is an abnormal proliferation of skin cells, arising and developing, in most cases, on the face of skin that is frequently exposed to sunlight. However, this common type of cancer can also develop in areas of the skin that are not exposed to much sunlight

Eczema: is a skin disease caused by allergic atopic dermatitis,

This type of eczema is most likely to appear after other symptoms that indicate an allergy appear

Eczema, in general, causes skin irritation and itching, redness and dryness to the point where cracks and scabs appear. on the skin,.

Eczema appears, in particular, on the face and extremities, but it can also appear in other areas of the body.

Many people suffer from chronic eczema. Eczema is a very common phenomenon in children, but it disappears and disappears, often, before they reach school age (5-6 years).


hair loss:.

Head hair grows between 10 to 15 millimeters each month. However, as a person gets older, the rate of hair growth begins to slow down.

Mostly, the phenomenon of hair loss is a result of the natural growth cycle of hair. Falling at a rate ranging from 50 to 100 hairs per day, is considered a very normal thing.

1- Alopecia areata:

It is one of the immune diseases in which the immune system attacks the hair follicles, which leads to their emptying. Hair is rarely lost. It is believed that the psychological state, such as anxiety and tension, is

Among the main symptoms :

One or more round, scaly, rough patches of skin in the area of ​​hair loss or just above the scalp

Slowly expanding or enlarging patches

Red, gray, or scaly areas

Patches with small black dots in the area of ​​hair loss directly on the scalp

Brittle or brittle hair that comes out easily

Thin or painful areas of the scalp .

the reasons:

genetic genetic factors

and environmental factors

Also, people who use corticosteroids and anti-cancer drugs are also exposed

Of the fatty skin inflammation or eczema fatty:

It is a skin condition that mainly affects the scalp, and causes scaly patches, redness in the skin, and difficulty getting rid of the crust. Seborrheic dermatitis can affect oily areas of the body, such as: the face, sides of the nose, eyebrows, ears, eyelids, and chest. . In most cases, this inflammation goes away without treatment, and it may need several repeated treatments before symptoms go away. However, daily cleansing with soap may help reduce oiliness and the buildup of dead skin cells.

Symptoms of this infection include :

1- The occurrence of scaling of the skin on the scalp; any dandruff, or in the eyebrows, or beard, or mustache,

2- Patches of greasy skin covered with scaly white or yellow scales form on the scalp, face, sides of the nose, eyebrows, ears, eyelids, chest, armpits, groin area, or under the breasts.

3- Skin redness, itching,

Tinea capitis:

Tinea capitis It is a fungal infection of the scalp and hair follicles that causes the appearance of patches covered with crust in the form of a ring on the scalp, which expands and spreads and causes hair loss, redness of the skin color, and itching, and it can affect other areas of the body, such as the hands, thighs, feet and nails.

Ringworm occurs as a result of touching an infected person or animals, or from touching objects that contain contagious fungi, especially in damp places. Ringworm can be treated with topical antifungal medications or, in advanced cases, tablets, or when it occurs on unexposed areas of the skin, such as under the nails. Following the rules of hygiene, keeping the skin dry, bathing and wearing loose clothing, cleaning the bed regularly, and replacing and cleaning or disinfecting hairdressing tools helps reduce the risk of infection.

The red wolf :

The red wolf It is a chronic autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks its own healthy cells.


The scalp and hair may be affected as a result of physical stress, appearing as thick crusts, which need to be treated with topical medications or creams.

Hair folliculitis:

Folliculitis is known as folliculitis Also, it is a condition that results from infection of the pockets from which hair grows, bacterial, viral or fungal infection, initially appearing as bulges or small red scars, with a white head around the hair follicles, accompanied by itching, hair loss and wounds, and leaving treatment may develop skin ulcers Nail diseases :

A Ncakkak nails :

Nail disintegration : There are local causes: where nails are exposed to disintegration as a result of traumatic accidents that occur on them, such as planting, stabbing or striking foreign objects that fall on them. There are chemical reasons: there are chemicals that work to disintegrate the nails, such as: paint solvents, as well as hot alkaline water, and other substances that, when used, lead to the uprooting of nails. Pathological causes: disintegration may occur as a result of a bacterial attack on the nails, or when a person has hypothyroidism, or the presence of infections around the nails.

Stiff nails :

In this disease, the nails take a broad convex shape in all directions, and this occurs due to a disorder of the cellular tissue located under the skin, and this condition appears in people with cardiovascular disorders, osteoarticular diseases, and in people with hypothyroidism.

Poe lines:

They are transverse grooves that start from the beginning of the nail and extend to the tip at the end of its growth, and this disease occurs as a result of a disorder in the growth of the nail when the patient suffers from lung problems such as: the presence of measles, mumps, and this problem also appears in those with coronary thrombosis, and it also appears When suffering from a cold. This disease is treated with the person's interest in treating the diseases that cause these lines .


gastroesophageal reflux disease:

Gastroesophageal reflux disease is caused by esophageal reflux or stomach acid reflux, and this may occur intermittently even in some healthy people, but if simple, moderate or severe stomach acid reflux is repeated several times a week, or if it causes damage to the esophagus, Or the appearance of different symptoms, diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease, it is worth noting:

That after food moves through the esophagus to the stomach in normal cases, the circular muscle known as the esophageal sphincter contracts the esophagus and stomach to prevent food from returning back towards the esophagus, while this muscle is in a state of relaxation during eating to allow food to enter the stomach,

In the case of gastroesophageal reflux disease, the work of the esophageal sphincter is disturbed, which leads to the leakage of some stomach contents into the esophagus.


Heartburn, which is a burning feeling in the chest area often after eating, and the heartburn may increase in intensity at night after lying down to sleep. chest pain;

difficulty swallowing

Burping bits of food or sour liquid

Stomach reflux during sleep and this leads to coughing, sleep disturbances and sore throat, and may even develop asthma.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome:

A group of different symptoms that appear simultaneously and affect the digestive system but do not cause it obvious damage, and are not caused by any of the other digestive tract diseases, and the most common of these symptoms are recurrent abdominal pain associated with the process of defecation, constipation or diarrhea or the coincidence of both, depending on the type Irritable bowel disorder, and people respond differently to the different treatments available to treat irritable bowel syndrome, which may include lifestyle and diet modification, and the use of probiotics. Known as probiotics or beneficial bacteria, some medications, and some mental health or psychiatric treatments, so the doctor may change the treatment several times before arriving at the appropriate treatment for the affected person's condition. Peptic ulcers and stomach ulcers:

It is the comprehensive term given to open peptic ulcers that arise in the lining of the stomach or in the upper part of the small intestine, which are caused by damage to the lining layer of the wall of the stomach and the first small intestine, allowing stomach acid to reach it and cause damage and ulcers,

The symptoms of these ulcers are similar and may include nausea and stomach pain, but ulcers that develop in the stomach wall, known as stomach ulcers, can treat most cases of peptic ulcers efficiently, but in the absence of treatment, the condition may develop and worsen with time in addition to the possibility of the emergence of some health complications. , such as bleeding ulcers, which in turn may lead to significant blood loss, ulcer perforation, or scar tissue formation

Indigestion :

The term indigestion is used to express a group of symptoms that may appear after eating meals, and it is a common health problem in adults, and the possibility of infection ranges between once every period of time, or almost every day in some people,

Here is a list of some of the common symptoms that may accompany indigestion:

Feeling of fullness in the abdomen during meals:

When a person feels full as soon as they start eating, they are unable to finish eating.

Feeling very full in the abdomen : after eating meals, or feeling that food has remained in the stomach for long periods

Or feeling unpleasant heat in this area

. Feeling of pain in the epigastric region, which may range from mild pain to severe pain in some cases .

. Other less common symptoms such as flatulence and nausea, and here it should be noted that these symptoms may be caused by a number of other health problems as well.


Constipation is defined as difficulty in the ability to defecate and the need for intense pressure to push the stool, or a feeling that the movement of stool has stopped or the passage of stool is obstructed, in addition to dry and hard stools, and fewer stools than the normal rate, and stools less than three times a week may Indicates constipation

And it may develop into chronic constipation, which in turn may lead to the emergence of some health complications, such as anal bleeding, hemorrhoids and fecal incontinence.

Among the common causes of constipation are:

The person's diet does not contain fiber

Not drinking a lot of fluids

Do not exercise, but must follow alternative medicine and diet

It is not recommended to use laxatives .

Inflammatory bowel disease:

inflammatory bowel disease الأمعاء acronym IBD It is a term used to express a group of inflammatory diseases that affect the intestines and digestive system, the most common of these are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, which are autoimmune diseases caused by the immune system mistakenly attacking the digestive system, leading to inflammation.

Ulcerative colitis affects only the rectum and colon and causes ulcers, while Crohn's disease leads to ulcers along the digestive tract and an increase in the thickness of the intestinal wall and a high risk of various types of infections, in addition to the possibility of causing a blockage in one part of the intestine, which may force the doctor to To perform a surgical procedure to remove it, these diseases are accompanied by some common symptoms,

Such as: [11] weight loss.

Tummy ache.



. anal bleeding

. Wheat allergy:

People with celiac disease or a wheat allergy cannot tolerate gluten.

It is one of the types of proteins found in wheat, barley and corn products, and thus leads to inflammation of the small intestine and damages it and affects its ability to absorb nutrients from foods, and treatment depends mainly on following a diet completely free of gluten, and it should be noted that the inflammation associated with the disease Abdominal pain may lead to an increased risk of some types of cancer,

The following is a list of some of the symptoms that may appear on people with the disease:

Intolerance to some foods.



Lose weight

. Abdominal pain and bloating

. constipation;


and psychological anxiety.

Neurological seizures.

Fatigue and fatigue

. Numbness of the hands and feet.

It is a health condition that causes itching and the appearance of a rash.


Hemorrhoids are defined:

As a bulge in the veins in the lower rectum and anus,

This condition is similar to varicose veins or varicose veins (However , they differ in place to emerge, and there are many different reasons that may lead to the emergence of hemorrhoids, but the cause is often unknown in most cases,

Hemorrhoids can be eliminated in many cases by:

Some lifestyle changes and some home remedies, and the following is a statement of some of these symptoms:

Symptoms may include the following:

Swelling around the anus. bleeding

. Itching and irritation in the anal area.

Pain and discomfort in the anal area.

Internal hemorrhoids: This type of hemorrhoids usually cannot be seen or felt, and this type of hemorrhoids rarely causes discomfort and often pain.

However, it may lead to irritation during the passage of stool from the affected area,

Other symptoms that the affected person may also experience include:

Hemorrhoids bulge out of the anus or droop, which can lead to irritation and pain.

Note the exit of small drops of blood with the stool without feeling pain .


E. Influenza stomach :

, infectious diarrhea, or gastroenteritis Or gastroenteritis are all terms used to express a viral infection in the stomach or upper part of the small intestine, which is often caused by a virus infection, and this infection is accompanied by some symptoms :

eg: vomiting,


stomach pain and cramping,

The patient is usually cured of the infection without the need for treatment.

With the attention to the need to drink sufficient quantities of fluids .


Gastritis is defined by:

It is inflammation, erosion or irritation of the stomach lining, which may occur suddenly or gradually, and this condition may not be accompanied by the appearance of any clear symptoms on the affected person in some cases, and if they appear:

They may include nausea and vomiting

Pain and burning in the upper abdomen

which may worsen or decrease in intensity after eating,

A feeling of fullness or bloating in the upper abdomen after meals.

Why treatment What are the complications:

It should be noted that gastritis should be treated to prevent health complications such as heavy bleeding and an increased risk of stomach cancer.

Why the disease occurs: Gastritis may occur as a result of a number of reasons, such as chronic vomiting. Stress.

* Excessive consumption of alcohol.

Use of certain medications, such as anti-inflammatories and aspirin.

Infections, such as Helicobacter pylori and viral infections.

Biliary reflux disease or biliary reflux disease.

Liver disease :

There are many different diseases and health problems that may affect the liver, which can be divided into the following :

A genetic disease , such as Wilson : It is a genetic defect caused by the accumulation of copper in the tissues of certain organs of the body, such as the liver, kidneys, brain and cornea of ​​the eye, causing serious damage.

Symptoms: start with various movement disorders, such as involuntary movements, tremors and convulsions, slow movement and speech and unsteady walking. Symptoms may develop later, showing stuttering, inability to relax and salivation (excessive salivation). .

The psychological symptoms associated with Wilson's disease appear with a significant and early decline in mental abilities, changes in personality and unstable behavior. Children who develop Wilson's disease begin to have a lower educational attainment, with the possibility of intermittent display of strange behavior or schizophrenia- like symptoms ).

Diseases caused by a viral infection , such as hepatitis A and C.

Diseases caused by the use of certain drugs, toxins and alcohol consumption, such as fatty liver disease and cirrhosis: This is permanent damage to liver tissue that develops as a result of prolonged infection with one of the various liver diseases that may affect the liver.

A diseases of the pancreas: A to inflammation of the pancreas :

It is acute and chronic: a sudden form and within a short period of time, and the severity of the disease ranges from simple or severe inflammation that may threaten the life of the affected person. Severe pancreatitis may be accompanied by bleeding and cyst formation, and severe damage to some vital tissues and organs in the body, such as the heart, lungs and kidneys, and can be In many cases, acute pancreatitis is fully cured if appropriate treatment is given .

Acute pancreatitis may develop into chronic inflammation of the pancreas) In some cases, it may also be caused by alcohol consumption, and in this case it may not be accompanied by any obvious symptoms for several years, for symptoms to appear later suddenly in some cases.

Pseudocyst disease : a fluid-filled cyst that originates from the pancreas and is located in the abdomen, and may also contain enzymes, blood and pancreatic tissue, and these cysts form as a result of a disturbance in the ability of the pancreatic ducts or tubes to drain enzymes and fluids out of the pancreas, and these cysts often arise after infection acute inflammation of the pancreas, or as a result of a number of other different causes such as exposure to an abdominal injury, especially in children, and chronic pancreatitis,

Gallbladder diseases:

The gallbladder is defined as a small follicle that stores and secretes bile, which contributes to the digestion process. The gallbladder may be affected by many different diseases and health problems, but the most famous of these are gallstones:


Gallbladder stones form solid deposits in the gallbladder that may block the gallbladder ducts, leading to severe pain in the upper right part of the abdomen, and these stones are usually formed as a result of high levels of waste or cholesterol

in the bile, or due to a disturbance in the process of drainage in the gallbladder,


In many cases, cholecystitis develops due to blockage of its ducts as a result of gallstones, which in turn leads to the accumulation of bile in the gallbladder, in addition to some other causes such as infection with some types of infections and tumors, and some serious health problems and disorders of the bile ducts,

Food Intolerance Disorders :

In some cases, having a food intolerance disorder in adults may cause chronic diarrhea.

Like lactose intolerance

Which leads to diarrhea, and flatulence in the event of eating a dairy product and cheese, and it is worth noting that eating some artificial sweeteners and alcohol may also lead to diarrhea in some cases .

Gas and bloating:

The main source of gases in the digestive system is swallowed air.

Each time air is swallowed, an average of 17.7 milliliters of air enters the stomach. In this way, about 2,600 milliliters of air enters the stomach per day.

The presence of gases in the digestive system is related to several additional sources: (Diffusion) Gas from the bloodstream to the digestive system, production by gut bacteria and chemical reaction between bicarbonate (Bicarbonate - base substance) And the acid that is produced in the stomach. Gas is excreted from the digestive tract by burping, air exiting the anus, and adsorption (Accumulation of atoms or molecules on the surface of a substance - Adsorption) By gut bacteria and spread back into the bloodstream.

types of gases

There are four basic types of gases:

Nitrogen (Nitrogen)

Oxygen (Oxygen)

Carbon Dioxide (carbon dioxide)

hydrogen (hydrogen).

These make up 99% of the gases in the digestive system. The relative composition of these gases varies throughout the digestive system. In periods when the gases are released in large quantities, the gas measurement shows a high concentration of hydrogen and carbon dioxide versus a low concentration of nitrogen. The amount of gas we emit:

A healthy digestive system contains less than 200 milliliters of gas.

It was found that gases are emitted at a rate of 476-1,491 milliliters per day.

The transit of gas through the digestive system is rapid and lasts about 5-10 minutes

Healthy people who are fed on natural gas firing food about 10 times a day, on average p remorse person finishes eating a hearty meal,


And as soon as he begins to relax or doze off, pain begins in the chest area, similar to the feeling that the chest is on fire, and this is what is known as heartburn..

Heartburn is a common phenomenon,

are often transient and not of particular concern,

Many people suffer from heartburn, a burning sensation along the food channel

Heartburn that occurs frequently, or even daily, is a precursor to gastroesophageal reflux disease. It is a disease in which stomach acids, and sometimes bile juices as well, back up into the esophagus.

Most people can cope with the discomfort of heartburn by making lifestyle changes and by taking over-the-counter medications. However, if the heartburn is very severe, all that these drugs provide is temporary or partial relief of the accompanying symptoms..

Heartburn symptoms :

The initial symptom of heartburn is a feeling of burning and pain in the chest area, below the sternum.

This pain may increase and intensify when bending forward, lying on the back, or when eating. Heartburn may appear frequently and intensify at night.

Heartburn Causes and Risk Factors

When swallowing, the annular valve at the bottom of the esophagus - a ring of muscle around the lower part of the esophagus - opens and allows food and drink to pass through into the stomach, after which it closes again.

However, if the valve opens by itself, or if the muscle is weak, stomach acids may move up (backward), into the esophagus, producing heartburn. Acid seepage increases when lying down or bending forward.

Heartburn and hiatal hernia

And the heartburn that appears frequently, and often,

A precursor of gastroesophageal reflux disease In general, although other medical conditions, such as hernias, may cause heartburn, too.

When a hernia of this type occurs, it is also called a "diaphragmatic hernia"." Part of the stomach bulges into the lower chest cavity. If the hernia is very large, it may worsen the symptoms of heartburn, by weakening the valve at the bottom of the esophagus .


It is acute bloody diarrhea

It is an increase in the number of defecations (more than 3 times a day) or a decrease in the hardness of the stool,

Any loose or watery stools. Dysentery is caused by damage to the intestinal mucosa

Cause : Often a local infection from invading germs or the toxic substances they secrete.

The infection is transmitted to the body through the mouth when eating contaminated food or water.

dysentery symptoms

Symptoms of dysentery include acute bloody diarrhea often accompanied by fever, nausea, vomiting and periodic abdominal pain caused by intestinal spasms. Because infection often occurs in the large intestine, it is accompanied by pain in the anal area and a feeling of frequent need to defecate. .

Fluid loss that can occur as a result of frequent defecation and lack of drinking can be represented by a decrease in urination, dryness of the skin, tongue and mucous membranes, and a feeling of weakness that is sometimes accompanied by dizziness.

Since dysentery is considered a contagious disease, it causes more patients to enter the patient's surroundings: at home, nursery, or kindergarten.

A burp:

It is a healthy physiological process of releasing air from the stomach or throat out of the body. This process is accompanied by a typical noise, and burping for three or four times, an hour after eating is normal.

A large amount of air enters the stomach throughout the day. With each dose of fluid, approximately 15 mm of air enters the stomach.

swallowing air Excess is an unintended operation Swallow air during and between meals. Most of the air is trapped in the larynx and does not reach the stomach. This process occurs by expanding the rib cage and decreasing the diaphragm muscle in front of the glottis CSS. Swallowing air is a common issue in indigestion Career and Membership.

People who are under stress, or who feel discomfort in the chest or abdominal cavity, complain of frequent burping. Burping leads to a feeling of relief. But these people are unaware of the process of swallowing air (although it is a learned process) and this phenomenon can aggravate the swallowing of air. Chronic belching is often a functional phenomenon .

Respiratory system:

The process of breathing begins with the entry of air from the nose or mouth; Where the nose humidifies and warms the air, the hairs in the nose and the cilia lining the nasal cavity up to the bronchi help to purify the air, and then the air moves through the larynx to the main bronchus that branches to the right and left to nourish both lungs, and the air passes next to the bronchi and then to the bronchioles It ends up inside the alveoli, which in turn transport air to the lungs feeding the capillaries for gas exchange, and it is worth noting that the diaphragm muscle located at the base of the rib cage plays an important role in this process; When they contract, they provide the space needed for air to enter through a process known as inhalation, and when they relax, the process of air exiting occurs, and this process is known as exhalation.

Organ diseases:

The most common respiratory diseases can be identified As follows: Colds The common cold is also known as a cold or a cold It is often attributed to viral infection; Especially the rhinovirus (in english: Rhinovirus)which, in turn, affects all parts of the upper respiratory tract,

This causes many symptoms; Such as stuffy or runny nose, sneezing, sore throat, and fatigue. :

Asthma : Asthma is one of the most important respiratory diseases

Which leads to swelling and narrowing of the respiratory passages, causing many symptoms that vary in severity and impact on a person’s ability to carry out daily activities, and these symptoms include coughing, which worsens if the patient has a viral infection in the respiratory system, and hearing the sound of buzzing accompanying the breath, Shortness of breath, feeling of tightness or pain in the chest, and inability to sleep well .

Tuberculosis :

tuberculosis occurs As a result of infection of the lungs with the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis ,

This case is considered one of the infectious diseases transmitted through the air, and it has been classified as one of the ten most deadly diseases globally, but it is possible to prevent it and achieve recovery after infection with this case, and it should be noted that tuberculosis is divided into two types, latent tuberculosis: In which the bacteria are inside the body, but they are inactive and do not cause any symptoms to appear on the patient, and the person in this case is not contagious, but it may become active later. Active tuberculosis: In which the bacteria that cause tuberculosis are active, and therefore the patient suffers from symptoms of the disease, and can also transmit it to others, these symptoms include: coughing sometimes accompanied by phlegm or blood, fever, chills, night sweats, loss of appetite and weight, chest pain, feeling weak and tired


Sinusitis, sinusitis occurs As a result of infection of the sinuses, and in this context it is indicated that the sinuses represent air-filled spaces in the skull, and in cases of sinusitis, the patient suffers from nasal congestion or runny nose, pain and pressure in the face, headache, or loss of the ability to smell or taste, This condition may be accompanied by the emergence of thick mucous secretions or the occurrence of postnasal drip.


Inflammation occurs as a result of infection of the lungs with bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, and sometimes as a result of inhalation of chemicals or solid objects,

Pneumonia is accompanied by many symptoms that may vary from one person to another, but the most common of these symptoms can be stated as follows:

Severe cough with phlegm.

Fever and sweating.

Difficulty and shortness of breath.

Chest pain, which usually occurs when you cough or breathe deeply

. Fatigue and feeling weak

. Anorexia

. nausea; vomiting; diarrhea ;


bronchiolitis occurs

Often as a result of viral infection, this condition is usually common among children under the age of two years, and the first symptoms that appear on the child are very similar to the symptoms associated with the common cold; These include coughing, nasal congestion or runny nose, and fever, and these symptoms usually last for a day or two, and the cough becomes worse later, accompanied by wheezing.

. Pulmonary hypertension:

Pulmonary hypertension affects in the blood vessels of the lungs and the right part of the heart;

As the blood pressure rises within these arteries as a result of narrowing, blockage, or damage to the arterioles, the right ventricle of the heart is forced to exert more effort to be able to pump blood to the lungs,

This will eventually weaken the heart muscle, and it is worth noting that the patient may not feel any symptoms during the months or even the first years of pulmonary hypertension, but as the disease progresses, various symptoms appear that can be stated as follows:

[shortness of breath,

. Fatigue. dizziness or coma;

chest pain;

swollen ankles and legs,

Blue skin and lips

Rapid heartbeat or heart palpitations .

Laryngitis :

It usually occurs as a result of a viral infection, and there is often confusion that prevents differentiating between it and a sore throat, and its symptoms include sore throat, hoarseness and possibly loss of voice, swollen glands, or a feeling of wanting to get rid of phlegm stuck in the throat.

For pharyngitis :

It often occurs as a result of viral infection of the throat tissues, but it may occur as a result of bacterial infection in some cases. Symptoms associated with this infection include: sore throat, pain during swallowing, or general fatigue, in addition to redness and irritation of the throat.


Rhinitis affects the nasal passages, and is accompanied by the appearance of many symptoms, which include congestion or runny nose, sneezing, itchy eyes with watery eyes, or postnasal drip. Bronchiectasis :

) Called the situation where bronchitis is stretched beyond the normal limit, which allows the accumulation of mucus, and this is what makes the lungs more susceptible to infection,

The most common symptoms associated with this condition are:

Coughing with phlegm

inability to breathe,

It is worth noting that the severity of the condition ranges between the injured; Some cases are limited to the appearance of symptoms from time to time, while others suffer from symptoms on an almost daily basis.

A diseases of the nervous system:

Inflammatory diseases : such as meningitis, or encephalitis, inflammation of the nerves of the body or some of them, and the reason for the emergence of these diseases are germs or viruses transmitted to people, and these diseases can be treated and completely eliminated, if they are diagnosed, and appropriate treatment is prescribed for them. However, one of these diseases may lead to the death of the person affected by it, if its detection and treatment is delayed

Traumatic diseases : These diseases result from the person being affected by an event or injury, such as an injury caused by a sports movement. The head, spine, or any surrounding nerve that received a direct blow may be affected, and the patient’s recovery or fate depends on the extent of the nerve’s exposure to injury or damage, The part that received a strong blow led to significant nerve damage and disorder, such as the brain or spinal cord. It is not possible at the present time to return these nerves to what they were, but the injury to the side part of the dead nerve may be moderate and can be treated, and here it must be treated immediately. If the nerve injury is left for a long time, it may be damaged and exposed to death, and the role of neurological treatment is In this case, providing the normal proper position for these affected nerves, in order to help them heal and return to their normal functions quickly, and if there is a bone mass or bleeding that has clotted or pressure is placed on the brain or marrow, or on any nerve cells, it must to get rid of it; In order to provide the nerves with easy access to oxygen-laden blood, as well as nutrients and medicines.

A Neurological diseases of aging : Many elderly people have nervous tissue wear and tear, and their ability to do their work to the fullest, and these diseases are considered not severe, but they worsen and develop over time, and affect the nervous system significantly, and the role of treatment here lies In alleviating its severity, not getting rid of it, and medical treatment can preserve the nerve parts that have not been injured, stimulating them and preventing their fall for the longest possible period, so the patient must adhere to the medical treatment prescribed by his private doctor

Symptoms are general:

For example: non-specific symptoms, such as headache,

feeling dizzy, vomiting,

a feeling of heaviness in the head,

blurred vision, hearing impairment,

When higher mental and psychological symptoms appear, this indicates brain injury:

such as psychosis, delirium,

emotional, psychological, and kinesthetic irritability,

inability to interact with others,

There are also imbalances in consciousness:

Such as a person feeling drowsy, irritable, and there are cases in which a complete loss of consciousness and a state of coma be affected. These symptoms are considered serious, and they urgently need a specialist doctor. Sensory disorders: A person may experience a lack of sensation, and there are those who feel numbness or numbness, and according to the area affected by the burning sensation, the affected neurons can be known.

Movement imbalances: such as lethargy, which means lack of movement or lack of a person’s ability to move, and there are cases that suffer from paralysis, which means disruption or absence of full movement in a specific part of the body’s muscles.

High blood pressure pressure : caused by the resistance of blood to flow within the blood vessels is what is known as blood pressure, and any rise in a certain percentage that occurs to it leads to problems in the heart and arteries and may reveal at the same time problems in one of the body’s organs such as narrowing of the arteries and kidney disease, and is characterized by that in many Sometimes it is free of symptoms that include headaches, dizziness, blurred vision, nosebleeds, shortness of breath, and blood during urination at times, and its absence does not mean that it is not dangerous, as it is called the silent killer.

Divisions of blood pressure: its types are divided based on the reading when measuring pressure, which is a number consisting of two digits, the upper systolic number, which represents the pressure in the arteries when pumped from the heart in one beat, and the lower diastolic number, which expresses the pressure in the arteries between the pulse and the pulse

Normal blood pressure was considered as follows : less than 120/80 mmHg. High pressure: systolic between 120-129 and diastolic less than 80. The first stage of high pressure: systolic between 130-139 and diastolic between 80-89. The second stage of high pressure: systolic at least 140 and diastolic at least 90. Hypertension episode: a rise in systolic pressure of more than 180 and diastolic pressure of more than 120, or one of them alone.

Causes and treatment of high blood pressure High blood pressure is divided into two types according to its causes,

The first type is called primary hypertension, as it is called primary, as it is the type from which most pressure patients suffer, and its causes were often undetermined.

Either it is genetic factors or not following healthy eating habits and lack of exercise,

Or it may be the result of age, which affects the work of the kidneys, as the imbalance in the proportions of fluids and salts that the kidneys are responsible for achieving may raise blood pressure,

As for the second type , called secondary or non-essential, it is the cause of other diseases or problems in the body.

thyroid or adrenal disorders and kidney disease,

As symptoms of one of the medications the patient is using or of drug and alcohol addiction,

Congenital heart defects and obstructive sleep apnea.

Depending on the cause, treatment is determined by a specialist

The patient is followed up in an integrated manner with changes in the pattern of eating, drinking and physical activity,

With medicines such as diuretics of all kinds, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, and others.

Atherosclerosis :

This is what happens when plaques or lumps of cholesterol, calcium and fats form on the walls of the internal arteries, which lead to the arteries losing their elasticity, which with time narrows and closes them.

The most prominent example is coronary artery disease ,

Atherosclerosis also causes serious complications such as clots, strokes, and others, as a result of high blood pressure, smoking or high cholesterol, and its treatment is to control its causes by following healthy living habits and taking antihypertensive and cholesterol medications, and if the treatments are not sufficient, doctors resort to surgical operations such as installing nets and catheters.

One of the forms of atherosclerosis is what is known as peripheral artery disease, which affects the arteries feeding the extremities, especially the feet, and its symptoms include : pain and ulcers in the feet and heels, and coldness in the extremities.

A heart attack, or the so-called heart attack, is a permanent damage to the muscle tissue in the heart that occurs when the coronary arteries feeding it narrow, and when plaques or masses of fat, inflamed tissue, protein and calcium are distinguished by its hard cover, which stimulates the cracks over time. The formation of a thrombus, any blockage in a blood vessel by a clot that prevents blood from reaching the heart and its tissues, causing damage and pain known as a clot

Symptoms of a heart attack: what the patient feels during a heart attack extends for about half an hour, and may affect

The patient is without any symptoms, as happens with diabetic patients,

The symptoms are as follows:

Feeling of pressure and pain in the chest area and extending to the hand and jaw.

Feeling like heartburn or indigestion.

Shortness of breath and rapid or irregular heartbeat.

Sweating and feeling tired and exhausted.

Heart attack treatment: The treatment plan for a heart attack is based on prompt delivery

To prevent further damage to the heart tissue, such as nitroglycerin, which is taken in the form of a soluble pill under the tongue as soon as symptoms are felt, which dilates the arteries and improves blood flow,

And drugs to prevent the formation of new clots, and aspirin and anti-platelet aggregators are what the doctor usually approves,

and thrombolytic drugs present in the arteries of the heart, or the combination of a group of previous drugs to achieve better prevention,

Surgical procedures such as network installation, cardiac catheterization, or open-heart surgery are also options that doctors consider based on the patient's condition and condition.

Stroke , stroke or stroke : a stop or decrease connecting blood flow to the brain , which reduces the oxygen and nutrition to the cells , leading to her death, called then stroke with ischemia, and in the case was ischemia short for a period not exceeding five minutes , called transient ischemic attack,

But if it is the result of blood leakage from the blood vessels or a rupture of one of them, it is called a hemorrhagic stroke, and all kinds of very dangerous cases that require going to the emergency as soon as possible to avoid complications.

Stroke symptoms :

Difficulty understanding and speaking, feeling general confusion. A feeling of numbness or loss of sensation of the face, hand, leg and mouth, usually on one side of the body,

It can be determined that a stroke occurred 1- if the patient tried to raise both hands on his head and then one of them fell due to loss of control.

2- A sudden, severe headache accompanied by dizziness, loss of consciousness, or vomiting.

3- He stumbled walking or lost balance. Blurry or double vision in one or both eyes.

Stroke treatment:

Intravenous injections of tissue plasminogen activator are performed to restore blood flow in places of ischemia with some other drugs in the case of ischemic stroke, or in surgical operations such as carotid endarterectomy. Hemorrhagic vessels are also repaired or arteriovenous malformations are removed in case of hemorrhagic stroke.

Heart failure : a pathological condition in which the heart muscle weakens or stops pumping blood, and it is called acute congestive heart when the place of weakness is the atria, and the heart is unable to pump blood to the rest of the organs, collecting blood and fluids in the lungs, abdomen, liver, and the lower part of the body. Four stages, the first in which no symptoms appear , and the second in which symptoms appear only when a great muscular effort is exerted,

The patient complains of fatigue, shortness of breath, and rapid heartbeat.

Both stages can be treated by making lifestyle changes to be more healthy and by giving some heart medications and monitoring the situation well.

As for the third stage, it is characterized by feeling tired when doing simple things, so the treatment is after discussing the situation with the doctor to determine what can be done to avoid the deterioration of heart health, and the fourth stage is characterized by the presence of symptoms even at rest, and there is no actual treatment for that except a few tips and instructions to facilitate patient care. .

Aortic aneurysm :

The aorta is the largest artery in the body coming from the heart and feeding the stomach, legs, and pelvis, and what happens in this disease is an expansion of weak places in it, and in the event that the aneurysm is in a small proportion, the appropriate procedure is to monitor and follow up the situation, and what threatens the patient’s life and health is in the case of stretched to the point of tearing,

Among the causes of the disease are smoking, high pressure and inflammation of the blood vessels connected with the aorta, in addition to obesity, high cholesterol and advanced age, and surgery is the last option for doctors to treat the situation .

Other diseases Other diseases that affect the circulatory system also include:

Cardiac arrhythmia.

Congenital heart defects.


It is the membrane that surrounds the heart muscle.

Marfan syndrome.


Of the glands:


, It is a disease caused by a deficiency of thyroid hormones:

, thyroxine triiodothyronine (Triiodothyronine) in body tissues. The causes of this disease are divided into:

into 3 basic groups:


When the thyroid gland is unable to produce hormones due to factors that have damaged the gland .

its types:.

Secondary hypothyroidism:

It is the thyroid hormone in the pituitary gland When thyrotropin/thyrotropin production is impaired

Tertiary hypothyroidism:

t production of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus It is the pituitary gland's monitoring hormone

Symptoms of hypothyroidism:

Hypothyroidism presents with several different signs and symptoms that are usually attributed to other causes. Signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism include:




drop in academic achievement

height in weight

sensitivity to cold

Muscle and joint aches

Forgetting and memory disorders

Excessive hair loss


Heavy menstrual bleeding

Fertility problems

mood swings


Hearing impairment

Dryness in the skin and hair

blurred vision


decreased appetite

Sweating in the palms of the hands

slow to speak

Puffiness in the face and around the eyes

Slow movement and the appearance of edema in the legs .

Elderly people with hypothyroidism may develop additional symptoms, such as decreased brain function, a condition very similar to dementia. (Dementia).

The doctor may notice, during a physical examination, when the thyroid gland is hyperthyroid, and the presence of the following signs and symptoms::

  • Thyroid enlargement

  • slow pulse

  • dry skin

  • reflexes (Reflexes) slow

  • Pale skin color and tendency to yellow

  • high blood pressure.

Laboratory tests showed anemia Low level of sodium in the blood and high level of cholesterol There are two types of pancreatitis : inflammation Acute and chronic inflammation.

Inflammation of the B Nkeraas Acute :

Acute pancreatitis arises and develops over a short period of time. In most cases, pancreatitis may be exacerbated by the formation of gallstones or by drinking alcoholic beverages.

excessively. Other causes of this type of inflammation include:

taking medication,

exposure to contamination,

Exposure to injuries to the body or as a result of undergoing surgery

An imbalance in the metabolism process

Weight loss

Urinary tract infections :

About 8.1 million people suffer from UTIs each year, according to the American Urological Association. Urinary tract infections occur. When bacteria enter the urinary tract

It can affect the urethra, bladder or even the kidneys. While UTIs are more common in women, they can occur in men, and UTIs are usually treated with antibiotics.

The most common diseases of the urinary system :

Urinary incontinence :

Urinary incontinence is another common disease of the urinary system. The most common bladder problems in women are frequent urge to urinate and urine leakage and the most common bladder problems in men are frequent urination at night and incomplete bladder emptying.

This is usually due to an enlarged prostate, which obstructs the emptying of the bladder.” Holding in urine for a short period of time, up to one hour, is usually acceptable, but prolonged and frequent holding of urine may cause an overcapacity of the bladder, transferring excess pressure to the kidneys, resulting in an inability to completely empty the bladder. These problems, in turn, may lead to urinary tract infections, cystitis and deteriorating kidney function. Some of the common treatments include medication, physical therapy, and pelvic surgery. Vaginal laser surgery is also becoming a viable treatment option, and in another 10 to 15 years, laser surgery will be a popular option for treating urinary infections.

interstitial cystitis

Painful bladder syndrome, also called painful bladder syndrome, is a condition of the bladder, especially in women, that causes bladder pressure and pain. Pelvic pain is of varying degrees. This disease can cause scarring of the bladder, and it can make the bladder less flexible. While the cause is unknown, many people with this disease also have a defect in their dorsal, the protective lining of the bladder. Visitors also viewed: Indications for use of Diamonerecta and side effectsآثار

Prostate infections:

It is a swelling in the prostate gland, and therefore can only occur in men, and doctors have indicated that the symptoms that appear often due to age

Symptoms include :

Urgency and frequency in urine,

Pelvic pain and pain during urination.

Kidney stones:

Kidney stones are clumps of calcium oxalate that can be found anywhere in the urinary tract. Kidney stones form when chemicals in the urine are concentrated enough to form a solid mass. They can cause pain in the back and sides, as well as blood in the urine, and many kidney stones can be treated by breaking them up using shock waves outside the body.

Urethral disease : It is a male congenital defect in the urethra, where urinary incontinence is abnormal, and is located in a place outside the normal place, and may impair the performance of the urinary system and male reproductive system. As urine can flow in different directions, sperm can mix with it, impair their production and be treated with plastic surgery.

A infection and inflammation in the kidneys and bladder:

The main reason for the presence of bacteria or microbes in large quantities that reaches the urinary system, and this problem is more common in children and the elderly. The main cause of inflammation is an imbalance in the immune system, and it can be treated :

By taking antibiotics available in pharmacies.

Increased salts in the bladder and kidneys : This problem is one of the most common problems, as salts accumulate in the body and stick to the ureters and kidneys, and this in turn causes severe pain in addition to colic. It can be treated by drinking large amounts of fluids, or washing the kidneys of excess salts. Other diseases of the urinary system include bladder cancer, neurogenic bladder, polycystic kidney disease, kidney cancer, prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia), venous fibrillation, and others.. Prevention of urinary tract diseases Drink plenty of water, preferably eight glasses a day. Today. Stay away from drinking alcohol. Avoid eating salty foods. Do not take medicines unless you consult your doctor. Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables. See also: How to get rid of albuminuria during pregnancy This was a brief overview of the diseases of the urinary system in humans, and if any abnormal abnormality occurs, the known and previously mentioned diseases must occur in the urinary system and it is necessary to consult a doctor in case of feeling any problem or symptom previous. This is to avoid any deterioration of the condition .

. A Diseases of the musculoskeletal system

Here is a list of all diseases belonging to the field of the musculoskeletal system in Web Medicine. Read about the most common diseases such as influenza and even diseases you have not heard of before on the next page

: A hardened sclerosis

It is a disease that often leads to exhaustion, as the body’s immune system destroys the membrane surrounding the nerves, which protects them. This damage or erosion of the membrane negatively affects the communication process between the brain and the rest of the body’s organs, and eventually the nerves themselves may be damaged, which is irreparable damage.

Symptoms of multiple sclerosis are different and varied according to the affected nerves and the severity of the injury. In difficult cases, MS patients lose the ability to walk or speak. Sometimes it is difficult to diagnose the disease in its early stages, because symptoms often appear and then disappear and may disappear for several months..

Multiple sclerosis may appear at any age, but it usually begins to develop between the ages of 20-40 years, and the disease affects women more than men..

Symptoms of multiple sclerosis

1- Numbness The lack of sensation, feeling or weakness in all or part of the extremities, and this weakness or paralysis usually appears on one side of the body or in the lower part of it..

2- Partial or complete loss of vision in one eye separately, in general, the problem is not in both eyes at the same time, and sometimes it is accompanied by pain in the eye when moving it

3- Double or blurry vision.

4- Aches and itching in different parts of the body

5- Feeling like an electric shock when moving the head, certain movements

6- Tremor, fatigue and dizziness

7- Loss of coordination between body parts or loss of balance while walking

Symptoms appear in most people with multiple sclerosis, especially in its early stages, and then disappear completely or partially, and often the symptoms of multiple sclerosis appear or increase in severity when the body temperature rises..

Multiple sclerosis causes and risk factors

Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease

And protect it As the immune system attacks itself, this process damages the myelin layer, the fatty substance that coats nerve fibers in the brain and spine.

When the myelin layer is damaged, the message or information that is transmitted through the nerve may arrive more slowly or not at all.

Doctors and researchers do not know the exact reason why one person develops multiple sclerosis and not another, but a combination of genetics and childhood infections is known to help.

What are the risk factors for multiple sclerosis :

The following factors may increase the risk of developing multiple sclerosis::

Multiple sclerosis may appear at all ages, but it begins to appear and develop in general at the age between 20-40 years. Age.

Women are twice as likely to develop multiple sclerosis than men. sex


The risk of developing multiple sclerosis increases when there are family members who have or have had multiple sclerosis, however experiments between identical twins have proven that genetics is not the only factor in developing multiple sclerosis, if multiple sclerosis is related to genetic factors alone, the probability of infection in twins Identical twins are equal, but this is not the case, as the risk of identical twins is only 30% if their twin brother has multiple sclerosis.

Infections It is known that many viruses are related to plaque sclerosis

Other diseases

There are people who are more likely to develop multiple sclerosis, if they have one of the following autoimmune diseases::

Diseases in which the thyroid gland malfunctions.

primary diabetes.

Inflammation Aloamaa E.

The two most common types of arthritis are: Osteoarthritis Arthritis is inflammation that can affect the knees, the joints of the palm of the hand, or a section of the spine, the two most common types of arthritis are: Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, pain and stiffness in the joints are the main symptoms of arthritis .

Less common types of arthritis may be the result of other medical problems, affecting other parts of the body such as:

lupus Which may affect the kidneys, lungs and joints, psoriasis

Which is mainly a skin disease that sometimes affects the joints as well.

Symptoms of arthritis

The most common arthritis symptoms are related to the type of inflammation and can include :

  • ache.

  • stiff.

  • swelling.

  • redness.

  • decrease in range of motion.

Some specific types of arthritis have signs and symptoms that affect other parts of the body. These symptoms include:

  • high body temperature.

  • Tired.

  • rash.

  • Drop in weight .

  • Breathing problems.

  • Dryness in the eyes and mouth.

Causes and risk factors for arthritis

With age, the risk of developing many types of arthritis increases, the pain associated with arthritis arises as a result of joint injury.

How does arthritis affect the joints?

The two most common types of arthritis affect the joints in different ways:

  • Osteoarthritis

Cartilage damage and tearing may create a situation in which one bone moves on the back of the other, causing them to erode together, causing pain and limiting the range of motion of the joint. The process of cartilage damage and rupture can last many years, and can occur quickly as a result of injury or inflammation in the joint.

  • Rheumatoid arthritis

In this type of arthritis, the immune system attacks The synovial membrane causes inflammation, which leads to swelling, redness and pain in the joint, this disease may eventually lead to the destruction of the cartilage and bone attached to the joint.

risk factors

Risk factors for arthritis include:

  • family history

Some types of arthritis are hereditary, so the risk of infection with these types is higher in people with a family history of the disease, that is, those who have parents, mothers, brothers or sisters who have had the disease before, it is not the genes that cause the disease, but it increases the degree of sensitivity to environmental factors from It will cause disease.

  • Age

With age, the risk of developing many types of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, increases And rheumatoid arthritis.

  • sex

Women are more likely than men to develop rheumatoid arthritis (Rheumatoid arthritis)While the majority of people with gout They are men.

  • Previous joint injuries

People who have had a joint injury, such as during a sporting activity, are at risk of developing arthritis in the same joint that was previously injured..

  • obesity

Carrying extra weight puts pressure on joints, especially the knees, pelvis and spine. People who are obese are at high risk of developing arthritis..

Complications of arthritis

Severe arthritis, especially when it affects the hands or arms, may make it difficult for the patient to perform simple daily tasks, and arthritis that bears weight may make it difficult for the person to walk Or sitting upright, and in certain cases the joints may be crooked and deformed .

Osteoporosis, osteoporosis or osteoporosis:

Silent disease, because it usually does not cause any symptoms or signs to appear until the bones become very weak, and this is indicated by the occurrence of bone fractures after exposure to a simple accident such as a simple fall, for example, and fractures may occur after making a simple movement during coughing or sneezing, and it is worth noting that The bones most affected by osteoporosis and where fractures occur most are the hips, wrists and spine.

Among the symptoms and signs that may accompany osteoporosis, especially when the bones become very weak,

We mention the following:

Feeling back pain as a result of fractures or problems with the vertebrae of the spine.

Decrease in the subject's height over time.

Curvature of the body when standing.

Bones break more easily than normal.

Prevention of osteoporosis

Some of the tips listed here may improve the prevention of bone mass loss:

  • Maintaining physical activity.

  • Add soy products to your daily food menu.

  • stop smoking.

  • Examination of the possibility of receiving hormonal treatments.

  • Refrain from consuming excessive alcoholic beverages.

  • Reducing caffeine consumption

Arthritis suffers from..

Rheumatoid arthritis affects the synovial membrane that covers the joint, which in turn causes severe pain and swelling and may lead to distortion of the joint , causing swelling ..

People with symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis may find,

In some cases, difficulty carrying out even the simplest actions, such as opening a vial or walking.

Rheumatoid arthritis affects, on the whole, women more than women and Aajh be between 40 and 60 may affect children .

There is no cure for rheumatoid arthritis, yet.

However, it is possible to live a long and active life with rheumatoid arthritis, if appropriate rheumatoid arthritis treatment, which includes joint protection and lifestyle changes, is adopted..

Symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis

Among the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis:

  • joint pain

  • swelling in the joints

  • sensitivity knuckles to touch

  • Redness and swelling of the palms of the hands

  • Hard bumps under the skin of the arms (rheumatoid nodules - Rheumatoid nodules)

  • Exhaustion

  • A feeling of stiffness in the morning that lasts at least 30 minutes

  • Fever

  • Weight loss

Initial symptoms

Signs and symptoms appear in the small joints, first:

Often, rheumatoid arthritis causes problems in several joints at once.

In the first stage, in most cases, it affects the small joints - the wrist joint, the palms of the hands, the ankles and the soles of the feet.

As rheumatoid arthritis progresses, its symptoms can also be felt in: shoulders, elbows, knees, hips, jaw and neck.

Severity and severity of symptoms

Attack (flare) signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis:

Rheumatoid arthritis signs and symptoms vary in severity and may appear, sometimes, and then disappear.

Periods in which the disease is most effective are called "attack" or "attack", compared to periods of "relative remission", in which symptoms of the disease, such as:

  • swelling

  • the pain

  • Sleep disorders

  • emaciation

Causes and risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis occurs when white blood cells, whose normal function is to attack unwanted invaders such as germs (bacteria) and viruses, move from the circulation to the membranes that cover the joints.

Apparently, it is these white blood cells that cause inflammation in the synovium.

Close to the joint, ligaments, tendons, bones, and Inflammation leads to the release of proteins, which in turn, within months or years, thicken the synovium..

These proteins may also cause damage to: Cartilage a

As a result, the joint gradually loses its natural shape, and curves (twisting), so that it may completely malfunction and become unable to perform its function.

Doctors do not yet know the reasons for this process, which eventually leads to the emergence of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis is likely to be the result of a combination of several genetic and lifestyle factors, such as smoking.

: Rheumatoid arthritis appears, in most cases, between the ages of 40 and 60 years. However,

Diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis

Diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis usually begins with a physical examination..

The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis available is aimed at

Reducing inflammation, which relieves pain and prevents or stops further damage.

Early and intensive treatment of rheumatoid arthritis can slow joint damage and help reduce the risk of disability.

Available treatments include, primarily, medication, although some cases of severe damage may sometimes require surgical treatments.

Complaining of back pain

A very common issue, as back pain is the most common reason for seeking medical treatment and absenteeism from work.

The encouraging news is that most types of back pain can be avoided

In the event that attempts to avoid back pain fail, a simple treatment that can be done from home, in addition to making sure to activate the body correctly, will treat back pain within several weeks, to return the back to its healthy state for a long period of time..

The resort to a surgical solution for back pain is a very rare issue.

Causes and risk factors for back pain

The back is a complex structure made up of bones, muscles, and ligaments (Ligaments), tendons and vertebrae (Disks) It is a round shaped pad made of cartilage material - which is used to curb concussions between the vertebrae of the spine.

The causes of back pain are many, which can occur in any of the different back compounds, but sometimes the causes of back pain in some patients cannot be determined.

muscle tension:

In most cases, the causes of back pain are caused by tension (tightening) of the muscles and ligaments due to incorrectly carrying a heavy weight, or as a result of a sudden incorrect movement.

Sometimes muscle spasms can cause back pain ..

P No. of women

In the event that the protruding or ruptured intervertebral disc presses on one of the main nerves in the back area, the pain resulting from this pressure can move towards the man and cause sciatica , which is very sharp pain, causing tingling starting from the person’s back and along the back side of his leg

Joints most susceptible to injury as a result of osteoarthritis They are: the pelvis, hands, knees and lower back.

In certain cases, osteoarthritis in the spine can lead to a narrowing of the area surrounding the spine, and this situation is called in medical language "spinal stenosis." "

  • Anomaly in the skeletal building:

Back pain can appear if there are improper curvatures in the spine.

If these curves become exaggerated, the upper back may appear more concave than usual and the lower back appear more concave than usual. .

scoliosis (scoliosis) It is a medical condition in which the spine is curved to the side, and this phenomenon can lead to back pain.

  • Osteoporosis

Stress fractures may appear (Stress Fractures) In the vertebrae of the spine in the case of osteoporosis and the presence of gaps inside them.

Relatively rare but dangerous phenomena:

Cauda equina symptoms

Cancerous tumor in the spine

Spinal infection.

risk factors

Factors that can increase the possibility of exposure to back pain, in the lower back area:

  • smoking

  • Increase in weight

  • advanced generation

  • female

  • Putting in physical effort at work

  • sitting at work

  • Working under great pressure

  • Depression.

Muscular system diseases:

There are many diseases that can affect the muscular system in the human body, including:

muscle atrophy:

Causes of muscle atrophy

There are many causes that lead to muscle atrophy, which we will mention through the following lines, which are::

1- Genes and heredity

Spinal muscular dystrophy is due to the presence of a genetic factor and leads to damage to neurons responsible for movement, weakness and atrophy of muscles.

Exposure to malnutrition

Exposure to malnutrition can lead to the emergence of a range of diseases. Lack of nutrition, poor nutrition in proteins and fruits, causes muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass..

Having various diseases

There are many diseases that lead to muscular dystrophy, the most important of which are::

  • amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

  • Infection of the muscles.

  • exposure to arthritis.

  • Exposure to polio.

  • Multiple sclerosis.

4- Neurological problems

Many neurological problems can cause nerves to malfunction and lose the nerves' ability to control muscle movement, and over time this may cause muscle weakness..

5 - age

Aging can lead to the production of less protein, which contributes to increasing muscle mass and maintaining muscle strength and muscle health.

In the case of low amounts of proteins, this leads to problems with movement, and problems with balance .

Symptoms of atrophy of muscles

Muscular dystrophy and weakness causes some symptoms, which are::

  • Exposure to the presence of many problems and difficulties in the physical balance.

  • Feeling of general weakness and muscle weakness.

  • Feeling severe pain and stiffness in the muscles

  • Inability to learn

  • delayed growths

  • Loss of ability to exercise and physical activities for long periods of time.

Muscular Dystrophy Diagnosis

There are several methods that help the doctor diagnose this type of disease in order to determine the appropriate treatment method according to the nature of each case, which are as follows::

  • Testing enzymes in the blood, such as creatine kinase, and if it is high in a person, the person has a muscle disease.

  • Testing for genes that cause types of muscular dystrophy.

  • Muscle biopsy is done through an opening or using a hollow needle to detect other muscle diseases.

  • After taking the sample from the muscles, certain types of dyes are added, with the aim of examining the percentage of enzymes that are found in the muscles and determining their decrease or increase. Once the cause of the disease is identified, the doctor prescribes the appropriate treatment..

  • An electrocardiogram and echocardiogram to check heart function, especially in people with muscular dystrophy.

  • Lung monitoring is used to check lung function.

  • Electromyography is done in the muscles to be examined and then the electrical activity is measured while the muscles are relaxing.

Muscular dystrophy treatment methods

Treatment methods for muscle atrophy and weakness vary from one case to another, according to the diagnosis made by your treating doctor and based on which a different treatment plan is determined for each case.:

drug therapy

  • Description of corticosteroids that help strengthen muscles and delay progression of complications of muscular dysfunction.

  • Newer medications include etpleersin, which is used specifically for people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Physical therapy and exercise

  • Performing range-of-motion exercises and stretching exercises that improve cases of atrophy, muscle weakness and joint flexibility.

  • Practicing aerobic sports because it improves muscle atrophy, such as: walking and swimming, and some types of exercises to strengthen the nerves and muscles as well..

  • Placement of braces that help keep muscles and tendons tight and flexible; Mobility and support for weak muscles.

  • The use of some mobility aids such as: sticks, wheelchairs, and walkers

  • As a result of respiratory muscle weakness In people with muscular dystrophy, especially at night, a sleep apnea device is provided, which helps improve breathing during the night. In some other cases, a respirator is used.

  • Physiotherapy to improve speech and movement, which is greatly affected by this disease.

  • Functional electrical muscle stimulation, which helps stimulate the contraction and relaxation of muscle movement in a person with muscular dystrophy.

  • Physical therapy for people with paralysis or movement problems as a result of muscle atrophy and weakness.


In the last stage, surgical procedures are resorted to

Methods of prevention

There is no specific way to prevent muscular dystrophy, but there are some factors that help avoid its complications and improve the muscle level in people, which include: :

Pay attention to proper nutrition to improve and strengthen muscle level.

Social support is one of the important factors that help people with muscular dystrophy improve their psychological condition.

Exercise and physical therapy to improve functional and motor performance in people with muscular dystrophy and weakness.

It is a long-term disease that occurs rarely, and it is an acquired autoimmune disorder, which usually results from the interruption of the communication of neurotransmitters with their receptors, which eventually leads to weakness in the individual’s skeletal muscles.

Myasthenia gravis directly affects the muscles that control the eyes and eyelids, changes in the face, and the muscles of chewing and swallowing.

Symptoms of myasthenia gravis :

1- Suffering from severe weakness in the eye muscles frequently

This disease is likely to be confined to this part of the body only, or it may develop to include some other muscles, such as: the muscles responsible for swallowing, chewing, or even the muscles of the movement of the limbs .

. 2- Effect on the muscles of the face and throat

This type of disease has a clear effect on the muscles of the face and throat as well.

This disease may cause some embarrassing expressions to appear on the face of the patient, i.e. unusual expressions that may cause embarrassment to the injured in front of others, especially when smiling, or when raising his head and so on..

. 3- Problems in the thymus gland

It is worth noting that many cases of this disease may suffer from some problems in the thymus gland Located in the upper part of the chest area, a person with myasthenia gravis may develop a thymus tumor.

4- In general, they are not considered serious and harmful problems, although these tumors can turn into cancerous tumors in most of the affected cases.

. Other symptoms of myasthenia gravis

  • Blurred vision, and it may be double in some cases.

  • The gait of the affected individual is usually unstable, i.e. swaying.

  • Facing some problems in the swallowing process.

  • Facing some breathing difficulties .

  • Difficulty speaking clearly and understandably at times.

There are some injuries to the muscular system, which are:

Sprain and strain: As a result of stretching or tearing a part of the muscular system, the recovery rate is much slower than the sprain.

Both problems can be treated by:

More convenience

Applying ice to the injury site

Use of compresses

Lift the injured part


And Auabarh reported a contraction of lymphocytic Ji muscle as a result of exertion or excessive dehydration due to spinal nerve compression.

Excessive drinking of alcohol.

the reasons:


Kidney failure.

Underactive thyroid gland.

Symptoms of muscle tension: The symptoms of muscle tension are severe pain, which leads the patient to stop any physical activity,

Inability to use the affected muscle until the spasm subsides.

Severe cases may be accompanied by swelling in the affected area, and it can last for days.

In the case of muscle tension, the patient may notice the emergence and stiffness of the affected muscle tissue,

The inability to touch it from the severity of the pain,

The patient can be diagnosed by symptoms without the need for tests, as the symptoms of muscle strain are common and known to everyone..

Tightness is treated with adequate rest

Drink plenty of water

Stretching exercises


A widespread phenomenon in the roots and palms of the hands, and is characterized by the appearance of inflammation or irritation of the tendons. Tendons are made of connective tissue

Connects muscles and bones. The tendon is enclosed in a sheath that secretes fluids to enable the tendon to move freely and smoothly. These tendons fall under the influence of crushing and shearing forces.

inflammation occurs In the sheath surrounding the string when the string is moving in tight places Or close to where it connects to the bone. When an injury occurs, tendons hypermobility or infections occur, all of these factors lead to damage to the tendons. The disorder is pain and restricted movement. Chronic conditions can cause permanent injury to the tendon and even rupture .

tendinitis treatment

The type of tendinitis treatment varies with the extent of the injury. In addition to ensuring rest, treatment relies on pharmacological drugs that contain pain relievers,

which do not belong to the group of non-steroidal. In chronic cases, some steroid injections and surgery may be given.

The most commonly affected areas of the palm of the hand are: the pinky, and the thumb


Signs and symptoms of tendinitis appear at the point where the tendon attaches to a bone and usually include:

  • Pain sometimes described as dull pain, especially when moving the affected limb or joint

  • the pain

  • Invisible tumor P.

Reproductive system:

A common diseases that affect the female reproductive system

papilloma virus : papilloma virus

It is a type of disease that affects the female reproductive system, especially before marriage.

This virus causes an enlargement of the skin and mucous membranes, which is called warts, and this infection leads to cervical cancer..

These genital warts appear in women in the vulva and may appear near the anus or the neck of the vagina.

Women are exposed to this virus as a result of using unclean public bathrooms, so women must take care of sterilization when entering any public bathrooms, and every woman must take care and take care of the sensitive area.

2- Polycystic ovaries :

One of the common diseases that affect a large number of women and affect the reproductive ability of women and appear in many girls after marriage

As a result of a certain hormonal imbalance that affects the ovulation process and leads to the appearance of fluid-filled cysts on one of the ovaries..

Ovarian cysts cause some symptoms that appear on women, such as: 1-Having menstrual irregularities. 2-Excessive hair growth in many areas of the body. 3-Having a weak ovulation fertility in women,. 4-The appearance of acne on the skin, and mood swings. 5-irregular blood pressure.

Vaginal disease :

It occurs due to infection with some viruses or bacteria that infect the vaginal area

And it is accompanied by secretions and itching in the vaginal area

And the white vaginal secretions and pain during intercourse

A burning sensation in the vagina during urination.

It may impede pregnancy.

- Disease Chlamydia :

It is caused by a parasitic bacteria transmitted from a man to a woman or vice versa.

These bacteria have the ability to destroy and damage the reproductive system without visible symptoms and may lead to infertility in the couple.

This infection is transmitted to spouses through sexual contact and causes pelvic inflammatory disease, as well as damage to the fallopian tubes and increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy..

Its symptoms are :

Feeling pain in the lower abdomen

And discharge from the vagina

The presence of bleeding during intercourse with pelvic pain.

5- Uterine fibroids :

They are benign tumors that grow through the cells that make up the muscle of the uterus and are a round substance.

Estrogen works

On the growth of fibroids in many cases, fibroids tend to shrink after menopause.

Fibroids do not cause obvious symptoms in a woman, but they lead to infertility or recurrent miscarriages.

6- Genital cancer :

Gynecological cancers spread to different places inside the uterus, including the pelvis or the area between the stomach and hips.

There are other types of cancer, such as cervical cancer Ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, vaginal cancer, and vulvar cancer.

7- Ovarian insufficiency :

It is a failure in the normal functions of the ovaries. In the case of failure of the ovaries, they do not produce normal amounts of estrogen, which is responsible for releasing eggs and causes infertility. .

Symptoms of ovarian insufficiency are :

irregular menstruation

And the presence of hot flashes

And sweating at night

Sharp mood swings

Having osteoporosis

And the presence of atrophy in the vaginal area and a decrease in sexual desire.

8- Gonorrhea :

Gonorrhea : It is a disease of the reproductive system, and it is one of the diseases that spread all over the world.

Infections, ulcers, painful secretions, pain in the abdominal area and severe burning d .

There are problems that most women face:

There is a missed period and a late period without pregnancy

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